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Wednesday, June 6, 2007

Medical Surgery

In medicine, surgery (from the Greek and latin chirurgiae meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance, or sometimes for some other reason. An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. In this context, the verb operating means performing surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject that the surgery is being performed on can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who performs surgery on patients. Persons described as surgeons are commonly medical practitioners, but the term is also applied to dentists and veterinarians. Surgery can last from minutes to hours, but is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment.

The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.

Overview of modern surgery

Although it is sometimes difficult to determine when a medical procedure is considered surgery, a medical treatment that involves a cutting of a patient's live tissue (e.g., hair and nails are dead tissue) is usually considered surgery of some sort. A medical procedure involving a drilling of live tissue in a body would often be considered surgery, but mere piercing of a body is not necessarily surgery since piercing is often done for taking samples or draining fluids from or injecting materials into the body, or setting up intravenous drip, and usually does not require suturing to close the pierced opening. Even if a medical procedure or treatment does not include cutting or drilling of live tissue in a body, it may be considered surgery, if it involves common surgical procedure or a setting, such as use of an operating room or table in a hospital, anesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments, and suturing or stapling. Surgery is considered an invasive procedure. Examples of surgery without cutting the body may include debridement or closing (suturing or stapling) an open wound or applying skin grafts if done under typical surgical conditions. Many types of more complicated or involved surgery are obviously considered surgery, since they involve common surgical procedure or setting as mentioned above. A medical procedure may be surgery even if not all of the typical surgical conditions or procedures mentioned above are used.

A few general types of surgery

Surgery can be categorized in many ways, a few of which are mentioned as follows. Some surgery may be required to save the life of a patient. Elective surgery is surgery not needed to save the life of the patient, but is expected to provide some other benefit. Emergency surgery is surgery which must be done quickly to save life, limb, or other capacity such as eyesight. Exploratory surgery is for investigating a patient's medical condition or making a diagnosis. Therapeutic surgery is for treating a patient. Surgery may start out as exploratory and become therapeutic. Amputation involves cutting off a body part; for example, a limb or digit. Replantation, an often difficult type of surgery more recently developed, involves reattaching a severed body part. Reconstructive surgery involves reconstruction of an injured, mutilated, or deformed part of the body. Reconstructive surgery is for reshaping of certain bodily tissues including bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, and skin that have been previously damanged by trauma or are congenitally abnormal. Cosmetic surgery, a common type of elective surgery that is done to improve the appearance of the patient. Excision is the cutting out of an organ or other body part from the patient. Transplant surgery is the replacement of an organ or body part by insertion of another from different human (or animal) into the patient. Removing an organ or body part from a live human or animal for use in transplant is also a type of surgery. Minimally invasive surgery involves smaller outer incision(s) to insert some sort of endoscope, which is tube-like equipment, to perform surgery. There are also many types of more specific surgeries. Laser surgery involves use of a laser for cutting tissue instead of a scalpel or similar surgical instruments. Microsurgery is fine surgery with the aid of a microscope for the surgeon to see better. Bariatric surgery is a class of surgery for treating obesity, a common example of which is gastric bypass surgery. Surgery is also used for sterilization to prevent reproduction, although it is a rather simple procedure for males.

Suffixes used for some surgical procedures:

* Excision surgery names often start with a name for the organ to be excised (cut out) and end in -ectomy.
* Procedures involving cutting into an organ or tissue end in -otomy. A surgical procedure cutting through the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity is a laparotomy.
* Minimally invasive procedures involving small incisions through which an endoscope is inserted end in -oscopy. For example, such surgery in the abdominal cavity is called laparoscopy.
* Procedures for formation of a permanent or semi-permanent opening called a stoma in the body end in -ostomy.
* Reconstruction or Cosmetic surgery of a body part starts with a name for the body part to be reconstructed and ends in -oplasty. Rhino is used as a prefix for "nose", so rhinoplasty is basically reconstructive or cosmetic surgery for the nose.

Tuesday, June 5, 2007

World economy

The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth, and is therefore somewhat of a misnomer, since, while definitions and representations of the "world economy" vary widely, they must at a minimum exclude any consideration of resources or value based outside of the Earth. For example, while attempts could be made to calculate the value of currently unexploited mining opportunities in unclaimed territory in Antarctica, the same opportunities on Mars would not be considered a part of the world economy – even if currently exploited in some way – and could be considered of latent value only in the same way as uncreated intellectual property, such as a previously unconceived invention. Beyond the minimum standard of concerning value in production, use, and exchange on the planet Earth, definitions, representations, models, and valuations of the world economy vary widely.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and prostitution, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy, since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect world-wide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government. Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real US dollars. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 6.5 billion people have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

Economy – overview

Global output (gross world product) (GWP) rose by 4.4% in 2005, led by China (9.3%), India (7.6%), and Russia (5.9%). The other 14 successor nations of the USSR and the other old Warsaw Pact nations again experienced widely divergent growth rates; the three Baltic nations continued as strong performers, in the 7% range of growth. Growth results posted by the major industrial countries varied from no gain for Italy to a strong gain by the United States (3.5%). The developing nations also varied in their growth results, with many countries facing population increases that erode gains in output. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology. Internally, the central government often finds its control over resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, in Iraq, in Indonesia, and in Canada. Externally, the central government is losing decisionmaking powers to international bodies, notably the EU. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment. The addition of 80 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal problems and priorities, the industrialized countries devote insufficient resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least from an economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while paving the way for an integrated economic powerhouse, poses economic risks because of varying levels of income and cultural and political differences among the participating nations. The terrorist attacks on the US on 11 September 2001 accentuated a further growing risk to global prosperity, illustrated, for example, by the reallocation of resources away from investment to anti-terrorist programs. The opening of war in March 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq added new uncertainties to global economic prospects. After the coalition victory, the complex political difficulties and the high economic cost of establishing domestic order in Iraq became major global problems that continued through 2006.

Statistical indicators

GDP (GWP) (gross world product): (purchasing power parity exchange rates) - $59.38 trillion (2005 est.), $51.48 trillion (2004), $49 trillion (2002)
GDP (GWP) (gross world product) (IMF 179 countries ): (market exchange rates) - $43.92 trillion (2005 est.), $40.12 trillion (2004), $32.37 trillion (2002)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2005 est.), 3.8% (2003), 2.7% (2001)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,300 (2005 est.), $8,200 (92) (2003), $7,900 (2002)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 32% services: 64% (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): developed countries 1% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 60% typically; national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from declining prices in Japan to hyperinflation in several Third World countries (2003)
Derivatives outstanding notional amount: $273 trillion (end of June 2004), $84 trillion (end-June 1998)
Global debt issuance: $5.187 trillion (2004), $4.938 trillion (2003), $3.938 trillion (2002) (Thomson Financial League Tables)
Global equity issuance: $505 billion (2004), $388 billion (2003), $319 billion (2002) (Thomson Financial League Tables)

Unemployment rate:
30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%-12% unemployment

dominated by the onrush of technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated deployment of new industrial (and agricultural) technology is complicating already grim environmental problems.
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2002 est.)

Yearly electricity - production: 15,850,000 GWh (2003 est.), 14,850,000 GWh (2001 est.)
Yearly electricity - consumption: 14,280,000 GWh (2003 est.), 13,930,000 GWh (2001 est.)
Oil - production: 79.65 million bbl/day (2003 est.), 75.46 million barrel/day (12,000,000 m³/d) (2001)
Oil - consumption: 80.1 million bbl/day (2003 est.), 76.21 million barrel/day (12,120,000 m³/d) (2001)
Oil - proved reserves: 1.025 trillion barrel (163 km³) 37257
Natural gas - production: 2,569 km³ (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2,556 km³ (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 161,200 km³ (1 January 2002)

Yearly exports:
$6.6 trillion (f.o.b., 2002 est.)
Exports - commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
Exports - partners: US 17.4%, Germany 7.6%, UK 5.4%, France 5.1%, Japan 4.8%, China 4% (2002)
Yearly imports: $6.6 trillion (f.o.b., 2002 est.)
Imports - commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
Imports - partners: US 11.2%, Germany 9.2%, China 7%, Japan 6.8%, France 4.7%, UK 4% (2002)
Debt - external: $2 trillion for less developed countries (2002 est.)

Gift economy
Yearly economic aid - recipient:
Official Development Assistance (ODA) $50 billion

Telephones - main lines in use: 843,923,500 (2003)1,263,367,600 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,168,433,600 (2005)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10,350 (2000 est.)
Internet users: 1,091,730,861 (December 30, 2006 est.), 604,111,719 (2002 est.)

Main article:
Total: 49,973 (2004)
Total: 32,345,165 km
Paved: 19,403,061 km
Unpaved: 12,942,104 km (2002)
Total: 1,122,650 km includes about 190,000 to 195,000 km of electrified routes of which 147,760 km are in Europe, 24,509 km in the Far East, 11,050 km in Africa, 4,223 km in South America, and 4,160 km in North America. And India alone has the length of 63,940 km (39,230 miles) of routes which makes it the second largest rail network in Asia.
Broad gauge: 251,153 km
Standard gauge: 710,754 km
narrow gauge: 239,430 km

Military expenditures - dollar figure: aggregate real expenditure on arms worldwide in 1999 remained at approximately the 1998 level, about $750 billion (1999)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 2% of gross world product (1999).